PHP include and require Statements

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It is possible to insert the content of one PHP file into another PHP file (before the server executes it), with the include or require statement.

The include and require statements are identical, except upon failure:

  • require will produce a fatal error (E_COMPILE_ERROR) and stop the script
  • include will only produce a warning (E_WARNING) and the script will continue

So, if you want the execution to go on and show users the output, even if the include file is missing, use the include statement. Otherwise, in case of FrameWork, CMS, or a complex PHP application coding, always use the require statement to include a key file to the flow of execution. This will help avoid compromising your application’s security and integrity, just in-case one key file is accidentally missing.

Including files saves a lot of work. This means that you can create a standard header, footer, or menu file for all your web pages. Then, when the header needs to be updated, you can only update the header include file.

The include() Function

The include() function takes all the text in a specified file and copies it into the file that uses the include function. If there is any problem in loading a file then the include() function generates a warning but the script will continue execution.

Assume you want to create a common menu for your website. Then create a file menu.php with the following content.

<a href="">Home</a> - 
<a href="">ebXML</a> - 
<a href="">AJAX</a> - 
<a href="">PERL</a> <br />

Now create as many pages as you like and include this file to create header. For example now your test.php file can have following content.

      <?php include("menu.php"); ?>
      <p>This is an example to show how to include PHP file!</p>

The require() Function

The require() function takes all the text in a specified file and copies it into the file that uses the include function. If there is any problem in loading a file then the require() function generates a fatal error and halt the execution of the script.

So there is no difference in require() and include() except they handle error conditions. It is recommended to use the require() function instead of include(), because scripts should not continue executing if files are missing or misnamed.

You can try using above example with require() function and it will generate same result. But if you will try following two examples where file does not exist then you will get different results.

      <?php include("xxmenu.php"); ?>
      <p>This is an example to show how to include wrong PHP file!</p>

This will produce the following result −

This is an example to show how to include wrong PHP file!

Now lets try same example with require() function.

       <?php require("xxmenu.php"); ?>
       <p>This is an example to show how to include wrong PHP file!</p>

This time file execution halts and nothing is displayed.

NOTE − You may get plain warning messages or fatal error messages or nothing at all. This depends on your PHP Server configuration.

Comments 5

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